Abstract: In recent days, after the restart of the economy, many countries around the world have seen a clear upward trend of new coronary pneumonia, which makes the demand for vaccines more urgent. The United States will begin vaccine trials with 30,000 people this week, which also means that the vaccine developed by Modena of the National Institutes of Health has entered the final stage.
In recent days, after the restart of the economy, many countries around the world have seen a clear upward trend of new crown pneumonia, which makes the demand for vaccines more urgent. The United States will begin vaccine trials with 30,000 people this week, which also means that the vaccine developed by Modena of the National Institutes of Health has entered the final stage.
A variety of new crown vaccines enter the final test stage
Modena, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, recently announced that it has received US$472 million in funding from the US Agency for Advanced Research and Development in Biomedicine, a total of nearly US$1 billion. The funds will support the ongoing Phase III clinical trials of the new crown vaccine.
About half of adult volunteers will receive two doses of the vaccine every four weeks, while the other half will receive two doses of placebo. Starting two weeks after the second vaccination, the researchers will track whether the infection rate of the new coronavirus in the vaccinated group is lower than the control group.
The company is expected to provide about 500 million doses of vaccine each year. Starting in 2021, up to 1 billion doses of vaccine may be provided each year.
Another American pharmaceutical company Pfizer and German biotechnology company BioNTech also announced later this Monday that they have begun testing their vaccines in multiple countries. Participants will receive two doses of vaccine every three weeks, and the rest will receive placebo injections.
The trial will include 30,000 participants between the ages of 18 and 85, distributed in 120 locations around the world. If successful, the two companies plan to supply 100 million doses by the end of 2020 and about 1.3 billion doses by the end of 2021.
Pfizer and BioNTech said on Wednesday that the U.S. government will pay nearly $2 billion to purchase the new crown vaccine developed by these two companies. If proven safe and effective, these vaccines will be vaccinated for 50 million people. The single contract price for this 100 million doses of vaccine is $39, and each vaccine includes two doses.
The launch of a large-scale vaccine trial helped Modena's stock price rise 9% on Monday. Pfizer shares rose 1.6% in after-hours trading, and BioNTech rose 4.2%.
Vaccines will use a tiered pricing method. US$40 is the highest price in high-income countries
In addition, a vaccine jointly developed by Oxford University and multinational pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca announced on July 20 that the co-developed new crown vaccine produced a strong immune response in an early human trial involving more than 1,000 people. . The vaccine is expected to enter the third phase of testing in August.
Johnson & Johnson's new crown vaccine also entered the early stage of human trials this month, and a large-scale phase III clinical trial is expected to start in September.
However, for the optimistic progress of vaccine trials, Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, gave a cautious response. He emphasized not to expect to develop a vaccine as powerful as the measles vaccine. If the new crown vaccine is 60% effective, he is already satisfied (the effective rate of the measles vaccine in the United States is 97%).
As for the final price of the new crown vaccine, Reuters reported on Monday that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is considering accepting a new crown pneumonia vaccine with a unit price of up to $40.
The alliance is a public-private global health cooperation organization funded by the Gates Foundation in 2000 to coordinate and promote access to vaccines for children in poor countries. Its CEO Seth Berkley said the agency has not set a specific target price and will seek to negotiate tiered pricing for different countries.
According to Berkeley, drugmakers often use tiered pricing, where poorer countries pay one price, middle-income countries pay higher prices, and rich countries pay the highest price. "$40 is the highest price within the price range of high-income countries, not a fixed price."